There are several cooperative cancer groups in the United States, which are collaborative organizations that bring together researchers and institutions to conduct clinical trials and advance cancer research. These groups have played a critical role in advancing cancer care and treatment over the past several decades.
One of the oldest and most well-known cooperative cancer groups is the Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG), which was founded in 1956. Originally focused on leukemia, the group expanded to include other types of cancer and has conducted numerous clinical trials over the years. In 2017, SWOG merged with two other cooperative cancer groups, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) and the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN), to form the NCI’s National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN).
Another major cooperative cancer group is the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB), which was founded in 1955 and focused on clinical trials for leukemia and lymphoma. The group expanded to include other types of cancer over time and was eventually renamed the Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology in 2012. The Alliance conducts clinical trials across a wide range of cancer types and is one of the largest cooperative cancer groups in the United States.
The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) was founded in 1955 and originally focused on clinical trials for breast cancer. Over time, the group expanded to include other types of cancer and has conducted numerous trials that have led to significant advances in cancer care and treatment. In 2017, ECOG merged with SWOG and ACRIN to form the NCTN.
The Cancer Trials Support Unit (CTSU) was established in 2000 to provide support for clinical trials conducted by the National Cancer Institute’s Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP). The CTSU is a collaboration between several cooperative cancer groups, including the Alliance, ECOG-ACRIN, and the Southwest Oncology Group, among others.
The Children’s Oncology Group (COG) is a cooperative group that focuses specifically on pediatric cancers. The group was established in 2000 through a merger of several existing pediatric cancer research groups, and conducts clinical trials and other research focused on improving outcomes for children with cancer.
The NRG Oncology group was formed in 2012 through a merger of three existing cooperative cancer groups: the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP), the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG), and the Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG). The group conducts clinical trials across a range of cancer types, with a focus on radiation therapy and surgical interventions.
In addition to these groups, there are several other cooperative cancer groups that play important roles in advancing cancer research and clinical trials. Each group has its own unique history, approach, and focus, but they all share a commitment to collaboration and innovation in the fight against cancer.